CLS Working paper series

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Changes in women's occupations and occupational mobility over 25 years

Author:   Shirley Dex, Kelly Ward and Heather Joshi


CLS Working Paper 2006/1 This paper will review the enormous changes in women’s employment behaviour and occupational status that have occurred between 1980 and 2001. Cross-sectional data show the extent of this as there were far more women in top occupations in 2001 compared with 1980.

Date published:   05/12/2005

Date posted:   21/03/2006

Changes in the Relationship between the Outcomes of Cohabiting Partnerships and Fertility among Young British Women: Evidence from the 1958 and 1970 Birth Cohort Studies

Author:   Fiona Stee


CLS Working Paper 2007/4. We investigate the effects of a range of time-varying fertility indicators, including pregnancy, and the presence and characteristics of children, on the outcomes of nonmarital unions for two cohorts of British women. We compare the effect of conceptions and births on the odds that a cohabiting partnership is dissolved or that it is converted to marriage for women born in 1958 and 1970. The analysis uses a multilevel competing risks model to allow for multiple partnerships and conceptions, and to distinguish between two outcomes of cohabiting unions (separation and marriage). We also use a multiprocess model, in which the outcomes of cohabitation are modelled simultaneously with fertility, to allow for the potential joint determination of partnership and childbearing decisions. The analysis is based on partnership and birth histories between the ages of 16 and 29, and social background, in the National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study.

Date published:   30/09/2007

Date posted:   30/09/2007

Can encouraging respondents to contact interviewers to make appointments boost co-operation rates and save costs? Evidence from a randomised experiment in the UK

Author:   Matt Brown and Lisa Calderwood


CLS Working Paper 2013/9 An innovative approach to reducing these costs, pioneered by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) on the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth (NLS79) in the US, is to encourage, using an additional incentive, sample members to initiate contact and book an appointment for their interview, rather than waiting for an interviewer to contact them. This paper describes a randomised experiment, conducted on the Innovation Panel of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) in 2011, which sought to evaluate whether this ‘early bird’ approach could be successful in a UK context.

Date published:   09/09/2013

Date posted:   09/09/2013

Attitudes Towards Pensions and Retirement at Age 50: Initial Results from the National Child Development Study

Author:   Matthew Brown


CLS Working Paper 2010/2. This paper uses data collected from members of the National Child Development Study at age 50 to examine the attitudes that British 50-year-olds have towards retirement and in particular the concerns they might have about their future financial situation and whether they might be considering working beyond retirement age.

Date published:   08/06/2010

Date posted:   08/06/2010

Attitudes towards participating in fMRI studies amongst participants in a birth cohort study

Author:   Matthew Brown and Helen M. Knight


CLS Working Paper 2010/8. A sub-sample of National Child Development Study members were invited to participate in a pilot study which sought to investigate the potential of conducting neuropsychological assessments with purposive subsamples of the British Birth Cohort Studies. On completion of the assessments participants completed a short questionnaire which included a number of questions gathering views about participating in research studies involving MRI scanning. This paper summarises the results.

Date published:   17/11/2010

Date posted:   17/11/2010

Assessing recall of early life circumstances: Evidence from the National Child Development Study

Author:   Brown, M.


CLS Working Paper 2012/3 This working paper assesses the accuracy with which adults can recall aspects of their childhood by comparing information reported at age 50 with the data captured at age 11. This evidence can be used to inform decisions about the validity of including retrospective questions in other surveys.

Date published:   26/07/2012

Date posted:   26/07/2012

Antecedents of hazardous teenage drinking: analysis of the 1970 British Cohort Study

Author:   Dr. Andrew


CLS Working Paper 2008/6. While the proportion of UK teenagers drinking alcohol has remained relatively constant, the average volume of alcohol consumed by underage drinkers has increased significantly over the last decade or so. Such changes in drinking patterns have coincided with other alcohol related transformation, particularly in terms of the development of alcohol brand extensions and premixed drinks, discounted prices and the liberalising of drinking hours, leading to increased opportunities for engaging in “hedonistic consumerism”, where extreme drunkenness is largely tolerated.

Date published:   13/08/2008

Date posted:   13/08/2008

An ethical review of the use of functional MRI

Author:   Martin Richards


CLS Working Paper 2011/4. This review concerns two areas of research practice that raise significant ethical issues and that have been the subject of much controversy. The first part concerns magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and, in particular, the fraught issue of feedback of incidental findings to research participants. The second part concerns the analysis of research participants’ DNA. The review used a lifecourse approach, which included a pilot study involving a small subgroup of members of the 1958 National Child Development Study.

Date published:   15/08/2011

Date posted:   15/08/2011

Academic self-concept, gender and single-sex schooling in the 1970 British Cohort Study

Author:   Alice Sullivan


CLS Working Paper 2006/2 Men have more confidence in their own abilities than women in many areas, including the evaluation of their own academic abilities, or ‘academic self-concept’ (Colwill, 1982). This gender difference emerges at an early age, and has been observed among primary school children (Tizard et. al. 1988, Parsons et. al. 1976). This paper addresses the question of whether gender had an impact on academic self-concept for a cohort of 16-year olds born in 1970, and whether single sex and selective schooling had any impact on self-concept for boys or girls. We are able to use previously unanalysed data from the 1986 sweep of the longitudinal British Cohort Study 1970 (BCS70).

Date published:   03/08/2006

Date posted:   21/08/2006

A rise in symmetrical families: Fact or fiction

Author:   Vicky Cross


CLS Working Paper 2014/9 Over the last century the position of women in society has changed dramatically. Not only are more women entering and remaining in paid employment when they have children. Using British longitudinal data collected during the first twelve years of the 21st century, we explore how the sharing of domestic duties and childcare responsibilities has changed among the same families between 2000 – 2012.

Date published:   05/11/2014

Date posted:   05/11/2014