CLS Working paper series

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Single-sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and through the Lifecourse

Author:   Alice Sull


CLS Working Paper 2008/3. This paper examines the impact of single-sex schooling on a range of academic outcomes for a sample of British people born in 1958. In terms of the overall level of qualifications achieved, we find that single-sex schooling is positive for girls at age 16, but neutral for boys, while at later ages, single-sex schooling is neutral for both sexes. However, we find that single-sex schooling is linked to the attainment of qualifications in gender-atypical subject areas for both sexes, not just during the school years, but also later in life.

Date published:   17/05/2008

Date posted:   17/05/2008

Social inequalities in cognitive scores at age 16: The role of reading

Author:   Alice Sullivan and Matt Brown


CLS Working Paper 2013/10 This paper examines socio-economic inequalities in cognitive test scores at age 16 for a nationally representative cohort of people born in Britain in 1970 (the 1970 British Cohort Study). The authors explore whether inequalities due to social background are similar across the three domains of vocabulary, spelling and mathematics, or whether they differ and to what extent these inequalities are accounted for by family material and cultural resources, as well as by children’s own reading. We show that childhood reading is linked to substantial cognitive progress between the ages of 10 to 16.

Date published:   04/10/2013

Date posted:   04/10/2013

Stereotyped at seven? Biases in teacher judgements of pupils' ability and attainment

Author:   Tammy Campbell


CLS Working Paper 2013/8 This paper presents work in progress to investigate whether biases in teachers’ assessments of pupils may contribute to creating or maintaining these attainment gaps among primary school children in England. The research analyses data from a sample of more than 5,000 pupils and their teachers taking part in the national Millennium Cohort Study (MCS)

Date published:   08/09/2013

Date posted:   08/09/2013

The Classification Of Qualifications In Social Surveys

Author:   Andrew Jen


CLS Working Paper 2007/2. Many social surveys now collect detailed information about the qualifications obtained by individuals. The reason for this is that education is seen as a powerful explanatory factor
affecting behaviour throughout the lifecourse. This paper analyses the problems which arise whenever researchers attempt to categorise qualifications data. How do social scientists construct summary measures of qualifications attained? Is a simple measure of highest qualification sufficient, and if so, how many levels should be used? Is it necessary to distinguish different types of qualification, such as academic and vocational qualifications, also?

Date published:   06/03/2007

Date posted:   06/03/2007

The design and content of the ‘Social participation’ study: A qualitative sub-study conducted as part of the age 50 (2008) sweep of the National Child Development Study

Author:   Jane Elliott, Andrew Miles, Sam Parsons and Mike Savage


CLS Working Paper 2010/3. This working paper provides an overview of the design of a qualitative sub-study of 170 members of the NCDS8 sweep (2008-9). The central objectives of the sub-study were to investigate the association between individuals’ social mobility experiences and the patterns of social participation, and to provide a resource for other researchers wishing to use this data set.

Date published:   30/07/2010

Date posted:   30/07/2010

The design and content of the HALCyon qualitative study: A qualitative sub-study of the National Study of Health and Development and the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

Author:   Jane Elliott, Catharine Gale, Diana Kuh and Sam Parsons


CLS Working Paper 2011/5. This paper provides an overview of the design of a qualitative sub-study of 30 members of the 1946 National Survey of Health and Development and 30 members of the older Hertfordshire Cohort Study, who were born between 1931 and 1939. Interviews were carried out as part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) collaborative research programme . The central objective was to use qualitative in-depth biographical interviews to help understand how an individual’s self-reported physical capability impacts on their health, wellbeing and social interaction. In this paper, we focus on the content of the interview topic guide, our sampling strategy and on the characteristics of the sample that was achieved in comparison with the overall survey population.

Date published:   19/10/2011

Date posted:   19/10/2011

Trends in the relative wage opportunities of women and men across three British generations

Author:   Jenny Neuburger, Diana Kuh and Heather Joshi


CLS Working Paper 2009/2. Since the 1970s in Britain, women’s hourly wages have increased, in real terms and relative to men’s wages. The observed increase may differ from trends in wage opportunities for the whole population though, since the proportion of women in work has simultaneously increased and, with it, the relative characteristics of the workforce have changed. We have analysed trends across three British generations, covering the period 1972-2004. We use detailed, longitudinal data from the birth cohort studies to impute potential wages for non-employed individuals. Our results suggest that observed wage trends understate the full increase in women’s wage opportunities over this period.

Date published:   21/12/2009

Date posted:   21/12/2009

Understanding bullying experiences among sexual minority youths in England

Author:   Morag Henderson


CLS working paper 2015/8 The detrimental consequences for victims of bullying are well established. Despite this there remains little empirical evidence about the relationship between sexual minority status including Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) and bullying among young people in England. The aim of this paper is to identify whether LGB youth are more at risk of bullying using Next Steps, a nationally representative longitudinal dataset. The findings suggest that young people who are heterosexual have a lower probability of experiencing frequent forms of bullying both during compulsory schooling and at age 19/20 compared to LGB young people. Furthermore, young people who identify as LGB have a higher probability of experiencing frequent physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying during compulsory schooling compared with heterosexual young people. Being bullied during schooling and at age 19/20 is negatively associated with life satisfaction. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Date published:   09/11/2015

Date posted:   09/11/2015

Understanding Participation: Being part of the 1958 National Child Development Study from birth to age 50

Author:   Samantha Parsons


CLS Working Paper 2010/5. Little has been researched into the reasons why respondents have remained, or not, in a study and what strategies help improve retention. This article presents findings from a study based on qualitative interviews with 170 men and women who have participated in the longitudinal 1958 National Child Development Study for half a century.

Date published:   20/10/2010

Date posted:   20/10/2010

Unequal entry to motherhood and unequal outcomes for children: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort

Author:   Denise Hawkes and Heather Joshi


CLS Working Paper 2011/3. The age of mothers when they give birth to their first child is increasingly socially polarised in the UK. This paper compares the development of children from young and older mothers, in terms of cognition and behaviour at age five, using the Millennium Cohort. Much of the difference is attributable either to the mothers’ social origins or inequalities. The developmental penalty left to be attributed to the mother’s age is, at most, modest.

Date published:   28/07/2011

Date posted:   28/07/2011