CLS Working paper series

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Changes in women's occupations and occupational mobility over 25 years

Author:   Shirley Dex, Kelly Ward and Heather Joshi


CLS Working Paper 2006/1 This paper will review the enormous changes in women’s employment behaviour and occupational status that have occurred between 1980 and 2001. Cross-sectional data show the extent of this as there were far more women in top occupations in 2001 compared with 1980.

Date published:   05/12/2005

Date posted:   21/03/2006

Academic self-concept, gender and single-sex schooling in the 1970 British Cohort Study

Author:   Alice Sullivan


CLS Working Paper 2006/2 Men have more confidence in their own abilities than women in many areas, including the evaluation of their own academic abilities, or ‘academic self-concept’ (Colwill, 1982). This gender difference emerges at an early age, and has been observed among primary school children (Tizard et. al. 1988, Parsons et. al. 1976). This paper addresses the question of whether gender had an impact on academic self-concept for a cohort of 16-year olds born in 1970, and whether single sex and selective schooling had any impact on self-concept for boys or girls. We are able to use previously unanalysed data from the 1986 sweep of the longitudinal British Cohort Study 1970 (BCS70).

Date published:   03/08/2006

Date posted:   21/08/2006

Imagining the Future: Preliminary analysis of NCDS essays written by children at age 11

Author:   Jane Ellio


CLS Working Paper 2007/1. This paper describes the preliminary results from an analysis of a unique sample of essays written by members of the National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1958 British Birth Cohort study, when they were eleven years old in 1969, on the topic of “Imagine you are twenty-five…”. Children’s creative writing about ‘the imagined future’ potentially provides insights into their understandings of adult work roles and family relationships, their views of gender roles, and the ways in which social inequalities are reproduced over time.

Date published:   14/02/2007

Date posted:   14/02/2007

The Classification Of Qualifications In Social Surveys

Author:   Andrew Jen


CLS Working Paper 2007/2. Many social surveys now collect detailed information about the qualifications obtained by individuals. The reason for this is that education is seen as a powerful explanatory factor
affecting behaviour throughout the lifecourse. This paper analyses the problems which arise whenever researchers attempt to categorise qualifications data. How do social scientists construct summary measures of qualifications attained? Is a simple measure of highest qualification sufficient, and if so, how many levels should be used? Is it necessary to distinguish different types of qualification, such as academic and vocational qualifications, also?

Date published:   06/03/2007

Date posted:   06/03/2007

A descriptive analysis of the drinking behaviour of the 1958 cohort at age 33 and the 1970 cohort at age 34

Author:   Jane Ellio


CLS Working Paper 2007/3. This paper provides a comparison of the drinking patterns of members of the 1958 British Birth Cohort at age 33 in 1991 and members of the 1970 British Birth Cohort at age 34 in 2004. In particular the focus is on the relationships between social class, gender and drinking behaviour and how these may have changed over time. In addition we exploit the detailed information available in the cohort studies about the kinds of alcohol that individuals drink to provide a description of how this varies between the two cohorts born twelve years apart.

Date published:   25/07/2007

Date posted:   26/07/2007

Changes in the Relationship between the Outcomes of Cohabiting Partnerships and Fertility among Young British Women: Evidence from the 1958 and 1970 Birth Cohort Studies

Author:   Fiona Stee


CLS Working Paper 2007/4. We investigate the effects of a range of time-varying fertility indicators, including pregnancy, and the presence and characteristics of children, on the outcomes of nonmarital unions for two cohorts of British women. We compare the effect of conceptions and births on the odds that a cohabiting partnership is dissolved or that it is converted to marriage for women born in 1958 and 1970. The analysis uses a multilevel competing risks model to allow for multiple partnerships and conceptions, and to distinguish between two outcomes of cohabiting unions (separation and marriage). We also use a multiprocess model, in which the outcomes of cohabitation are modelled simultaneously with fertility, to allow for the potential joint determination of partnership and childbearing decisions. The analysis is based on partnership and birth histories between the ages of 16 and 29, and social background, in the National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study.

Date published:   30/09/2007

Date posted:   30/09/2007

Economic position and occupational segregation in the 1990s: A comparison of the ONS Longitudinal Study and the 1958 National Child Development Study

Author:   Daniel Gui


CLS Working Paper 2008/1.  This paper has two aims. The first is to examine the comparability of the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study, known as the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Longitudinal Study (LS), in terms of the information they provide about the employment profile of their respective samples. The second aim is to describe changes in occupational segregation in England and Wales in the decade between 1991 and 2000/2001. By using the longitudinal data contained in both the NCDS and the LS it is possible to examine not only the aggregate changes in occupational segregation, but also individual transitions between different types of occupations characterised according to the percentage of women working within the occupation.

Date published:   21/02/2008

Date posted:   21/02/2008

Children’s Reading and Math Skills: The Influence of Family Caring

Author:   Robert T.


CLS Working Paper 2008/2. The paper investigates the influence of two distinct family attributes on children’s test scores in reading and mathematics. One is the family’s resources – its income level, the parents’ education levels, own ability in reading and math, among others. The strong, well-documented relationship of family resources to children’s cognitive skills is confirmed in the two British Cohort data sets analysed here. The other attribute is the parents’ caring for the child, the family’s habits regarding nurturing the children, the inclination to sacrifice on behalf of the children or to expend time and effort with the children.

Date published:   16/05/2008

Date posted:   04/06/2008

Single-sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and through the Lifecourse

Author:   Alice Sull


CLS Working Paper 2008/3. This paper examines the impact of single-sex schooling on a range of academic outcomes for a sample of British people born in 1958. In terms of the overall level of qualifications achieved, we find that single-sex schooling is positive for girls at age 16, but neutral for boys, while at later ages, single-sex schooling is neutral for both sexes. However, we find that single-sex schooling is linked to the attainment of qualifications in gender-atypical subject areas for both sexes, not just during the school years, but also later in life.

Date published:   17/05/2008

Date posted:   17/05/2008

A Profile of Population Change in Rural England

Author:   Heather Jo


CLS Working Paper 2008/4. A new official classification of rurality has been developed for England on the basis of settlement patterns. This paper investigates some differences in the socio-demographic profile of Rural and Urban England taking evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study, and the ONS Longitudinal Study spanning 4 censuses since 1971.

Date published:   18/06/2008

Date posted:   18/06/2008