CLS Working paper series

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Vocabulary from adolescence to middle age

Author:   Alice Sullivan and Matt Brown


CLS working paper 2014/7 The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) data is rich in cognitive measures taken during childhood and adolescence, and also includes adult measures of literacy and numeracy. For the first time, the 2012 survey included a repeat measure in adulthood of a cognitive scale which had been used previously with the cohort in childhood – a vocabulary test first taken in 1986, when the cohort members were 16 years old. We find that both educational and occupational attainment, and reading habits in childhood and adulthood, are linked to vocabulary growth.

Date published:   06/11/2014

Date posted:   06/11/2014

Understanding bullying experiences among sexual minority youths in England

Author:   Morag Henderson


CLS working paper 2015/8 The detrimental consequences for victims of bullying are well established. Despite this there remains little empirical evidence about the relationship between sexual minority status including Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) and bullying among young people in England. The aim of this paper is to identify whether LGB youth are more at risk of bullying using Next Steps, a nationally representative longitudinal dataset. The findings suggest that young people who are heterosexual have a lower probability of experiencing frequent forms of bullying both during compulsory schooling and at age 19/20 compared to LGB young people. Furthermore, young people who identify as LGB have a higher probability of experiencing frequent physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying during compulsory schooling compared with heterosexual young people. Being bullied during schooling and at age 19/20 is negatively associated with life satisfaction. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Date published:   09/11/2015

Date posted:   09/11/2015