CLS Working paper series

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Class Origins, Education and Occupational Attainment: Cross-cohort changes among Men in Britain

Author:   Ersz├ębet Bukodi and John H Goldthorpe


CLS Working Paper 2009/3. Studies of intergenerational class mobility and of intragenerational occupational mobility have of late tended to diverge in their concerns and methodology. This reflects assumptions regarding the increasing part played by education in intergenerational mobility and the decreasing part played by class origins in intragenerational mobility, once educational attainment is controlled. The paper contributes to the questioning of these assumptions on empirical grounds. Analyses are made of the occupational mobility of men in three British birth cohorts over the course of their earlier working lives: i.e. men born in 1946, 1958 and 1970.

Date published:   22/12/2009

Date posted:   22/12/2009

Trends in the relative wage opportunities of women and men across three British generations

Author:   Jenny Neuburger, Diana Kuh and Heather Joshi


CLS Working Paper 2009/2. Since the 1970s in Britain, women’s hourly wages have increased, in real terms and relative to men’s wages. The observed increase may differ from trends in wage opportunities for the whole population though, since the proportion of women in work has simultaneously increased and, with it, the relative characteristics of the workforce have changed. We have analysed trends across three British generations, covering the period 1972-2004. We use detailed, longitudinal data from the birth cohort studies to impute potential wages for non-employed individuals. Our results suggest that observed wage trends understate the full increase in women’s wage opportunities over this period.

Date published:   21/12/2009

Date posted:   21/12/2009

Combining Childrearing with Work: Do Maternal Employment Experiences Compromise Child Development

Author:   Heather Joshi, Elizabeth Cooksey and Georgia Verropoulou


CLS Working Paper 2009/1. In this study we address the important yet controversial questions of whether and how a mother’s employment might impact the prospects for her children’s development. Does a woman’s role as producer conflict with her role as reproducer of ‘child quality’? Alternatively, might her economic productivity enhance her child’s development?

Date published:   17/12/2009

Date posted:   17/12/2009

Missing Income Data in the Millennium Cohort Study: Evidence from the First Two Sweeps

Author:   Denise Hawkes and Ian Plewis


CLS Working Paper 2008/10. The paper looks at issues such as within-household and within-individual correlations for missing income data; the likelihood of female interviewers being more successful than a male interviewer in getting responses to income questions from main respondents and their partners; whether there is a systematic tendency for income data to be missing at sweeps one and two over and above what we know about unit and partner non-response; and whether attrition at sweep two is related to household income at sweep one or the failure to provide income data at sweep one.

Date published:   19/12/2008

Date posted:   19/12/2008

Cross-National Research Using Contemporary Birth Cohort Studies: A Look at Early Maternal Employment in the United Kingdom and United States

Author:   Danielle Crosby & Denise Hawkes


CLS Working Paper 2008/13. The recent establishment of two national longitudinal studies of contemporary birth cohorts in the United Kingdom and United States creates a valuable opportunity for cross-national research on the early life experiences of young children and their families. This paper describes these new datasets and highlights the potential advantages and challenges of their combined use.

Date published:   19/12/2008

Date posted:   19/12/2008

Educational Attainment, Labour Market Conditions and Unobserved Heterogeneity: The Timing of First and Higher-Order Births in Britain

Author:   Andrew Jenkins, Heather Joshi and Mark Killingsworth


CLS Working Paper 2008/12. This paper analyses the effects of women’s education and aggregate unemployment rates on fertility in Britain, using NCDS and BCS70 data.

Date published:   25/11/2008

Date posted:   25/11/2008

Ethnic minorities and non-response in the Millennium Cohort Study

Author:   Shirley Dex and Rachel Rosenberg


CLS Working Paper 2008/11. This paper sets out to analyse the non-response of mothers who took part in Sweep 1 of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) focusing in particular on differences in response by ethnicity.

Date published:   18/11/2008

Date posted:   18/11/2008

Poverty, Maternal Depression, Family Status and Children's Cognitive and Emotional Development in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

Author:   Kathleen Kiernan & Fiona Mensah


CLS Working Paper 2008/9. Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study, we examine how three aspects of parental resources: income, mother's mental well-being and family status in early childhood enhance or compromise their children's cognitive and behavioural development. This working paper has now been superseded by a refereed journal article: KIERNAN K.E. and MENSAH, F.K. (2009) Poverty, Maternal Depression, Family Status and Children's Cognitive and Behavioural development in Early Childhood: a longitudinal study. Journal of Social Policy, 38(4), 569-588.

Date published:   30/10/2008

Date posted:   30/10/2008

Does Mothers' Employment Conflict with Child Development? Multilevel Analysis of British Mothers born in 1958

Author:   Georgia Verropoulou & Heather Joshi


CLS Working Paper 2008/8. This working paper has now been superseded by a refereed journal article:
VERROPOULOU, G. and JOSHI, H. (2009) Does mothers' employment conflict with child development? Multilevel analysis of British mothers born in 1958. Journal of Population Economics, 22(3), 665-692

Date published:   15/08/2008

Date posted:   15/08/2008

Family poverty assessed at three years old

Author:   Jonathan B


CLS Working Paper 2008/7. This working paper summarises the results of an analysis of poverty in MCS 2 when the children were about 3 years old. It produces child poverty rates using income poverty, deprivation, subjective poverty and benefit receipt. Movements into and out of poverty between sweeps 1 and 2 are explored, and also the impacts of employment and family change. Having controlled for other factors, poverty was associated with behavioural problems, parent-child relationships, maternal depression and mental health problems.

Date published:   14/08/2008

Date posted:   14/08/2008